Music in peacebuilding is an emergent field with interested scholars representing a variety of intertwined fields, from applied ethnomusicology to sociology, from peace and conflict studies to social movement studies. In addition to scholarly pursuits, there are numerous practitioners and activists who are involved in the work of music in peacebuilding, sometimes explicitly connected through their work to music and peacebuilding and sometimes implicitly. The Min-On Music Research Institute (MOMRI), based in Tokyo, Japan, is possibly the only research organisation in the world dedicated solely to music in peacebuilding. There is a growing interest in music in peacebuilding (and music, conflict and violence), but the one thing that became abundantly clear is that we did not share a collectively agreed upon vocabulary to effectively discuss matters of shared concern. After many discussions and break-out groups failed to develop consistent frameworks, MOMRI decided that we should attempt to find a common set of reference points and discourses to facilitate collaborative work in the future. This special issue of Music and the Arts in Action on Keywords for Music in peacebuilding is the result of this process.